1. S.K. Agrawal, Heavy Metal Pollution, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 2009.
  2. O. Ozay, S. Ekici, Y. Baran, N. Aktas, N. Sahiner, Removal of toxic metal ions with magnetic hydrogels, Water Res., 43 (2009) 4403–4411.
  3. M.H. Ehrampoush, M. Miria, M.H. Salmani, A.H. Mahvi, Cadmium removal from aqueous solution by green synthesis iron oxide nanoparticles with tangerine peel extract, J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 13 (2015) 84–90.
  4. M. Volpe, D. Oliveri, G. Ferrara, M. Salvaggio, S. Piazza, S. Italiano, C. Sunseri, Metallic lead recovery from lead-acid battery paste by urea acetate dissolution and cementation on iron, Hydrometallurgy, 96 (2009) 123–131.
  5. J.S. Casas, J. Sordo, Lead; Chemistry, Analytical Aspects, Environmental Impact and Health Effects, Elsevier, London, 2006.
  7. M. King, V. Ramachandran, R.D. Prengaman, S.C. DeVito, J. Breen, Lead and Lead Alloys, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2005.
  8. A.I. Okoye, P.M. Ejikeme, O.D. Onukwuli, Lead removal from wastewater using fluted pumpkin seed shell activated carbon: adsorption modeling and kinetics, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 7 (2010) 793–800.
  9. M.N.M. Ibrahim, W.S.W. Ngah, M.S. Norliyana, W.R.W. Daud, M. Rafatullah, O. Sulaiman, R. Hashim, A novel agricultural waste adsorbent for the removal of lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions, J. Hazard. Mater., 182 (2010) 377–385.
  10. G.D. Vuković, A.D. Marinković, S.D. Škapin, M.D. Ristić, R. Aleksić, A.A. Perić-Grujić, P.S. Uskoković, Removal of lead from water by amino modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Chem. Eng. J., 173 (2011) 855–865.
  11. A. Dubey, S. Shiwani, Adsorption of lead using a new green material obtained from Portulaca plant, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 9 (2012) 15–20.
  12. R. Jamshidi Gohari, W.J. Lau, T. Matsuura, E. Halakoo, A.F. Ismail, Adsorptive removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by novel PES/HMO ultrafiltration mixed matrix membrane, Sep. Purif. Technol., 120 (2013) 59–68.
  13. O. Olanipekun, A. Oyefusi, G.M. Neelgund, A. Oki, Adsorption of lead over graphite oxide, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 118 (2014) 857–860.
  14. M.R. Fadaei Tehrani, A. Shamsai, M. Vossughi, In-situ Pb2+ remediation using nano iron particles, J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 13 (2015) 1–8.
  15. K.G. Bhattacharyya, S.S. Gupta, Adsorption of a few heavy metals on natural and modified kaolinite and montmorillonite: a review, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 140 (2008) 114–131.
  16. L.F. Greenlee, D.F. Lawler, B.D. Freeman, B. Marrot, P. Moulin, Reverse osmosis desalination: water sources, technology, and today’s challenges, Water Res., 43 (2009) 2317–2348.
  17. M.M. Matlock, B.S. Howerton, D.A. Atwood, Chemical precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage, Water Res., 36 (2002) 4757–4764.
  18. A. Dabrowski, Z. Hubicki, P. Podkościelny, E. Robens, Selective removal of the heavy metal ions from waters and industrial wastewaters by ion-exchange method, Chemosphere, 56 (2004) 91–106.
  19. J.E. Silva, A.P. Paiva, D. Soares, A. Labrinch, F. Castro, Solvent extraction applied to the recovery of heavy metals from galvanic sludge, J. Hazard. Mater., 120 (2005) 113–118.
  20. F. Akbal, S. Camcı, Copper, chromium and nickel removal from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation, Desalination, 269 (2011) 214–222.
  21. E. Bazrafshan, L. Mohammadi, A. Ansari-Moghaddam, A.H. Mahvi, Heavy metals removal from aqueous environments by electrocoagulation process – a systematic review, J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 13 (2015) 74–89.
  22. G. Li, Q. Li, D. Zhang, L. Wang, Biosorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution by a new sorbent prepared from Hydrilla verticillata and Fe3O4 nanoparticles: one-component and binary systems, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 8480–8493.
  23. R. Najam, S.M.A. Andrabi, Removal of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption on walnut shellequilibrium and thermodynamic studies: treatment of effluents from electroplating industry, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 27363–27373.
  24. A. Garba, N.S. Nasri, H. Basri, R. Ismail, Z. Abdul Majid, U.D. Hamza, J. Mohammed, Adsorptive removal of phenol from aqueous solution on a modified palm shell-based carbon: fixed-bed adsorption studies, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 29488–29499.
  25. R.T. Yang, Adsorbents; Fundamentals and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey, 2003.
  26. S. Aghazadeh, E. Safarzadeh, M. Gharabaghi, M. Irannajad, Modification of natural zeolite for Cu removal from waste waters, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 27843–27850.
  27. M. Koorepazan Moftakhar, Z. Dousti, M.R. Yaftian, M. Ghorbanloo, Investigation of heavy metal ions adsorption behavior of silica-supported Schiff base ligands, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 27396–27408.
  28. H. Pourzamani, A.M. Samani Majd, S. Fadaei, Benzene removal by hybrid of nanotubes and magnetic nanoparticle from aqueous solution, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 19038–19049.
  29. E. Ahmadi, B. Kakavandi, A. Azari, H. Izanloo, H. Gharibi, A.H. Mahvi, A. Javid, S.Y. Hashemi, The performance of mesoporous magnetite zeolite nanocomposite in removing dimethyl phthalate from aquatic environments, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 27768–27782.
  30. R. Rezaee, S. Nasseri, A.H. Mahvi, R. Nabizadeh, S.A. Mousavi, A. Rashidi, A. Jafari, S. Nazmara, Fabrication and characterization of a polysulfone-graphene oxide nanocomposite membrane for arsenate rejection from water, J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 13 (2015) 61–71.
  31. M.H. Morcali, A. Baysal, Lead and cadmium sorption in water samples using modified nano-sized cobalt aluminate, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 21855–21862.
  32. S.E. Ebrahim, A.H. Sulaymon, H.S. Alhares, Competitive removal of Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ ions onto iron oxide nanoparticles from wastewater, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 20915–20929.
  33. I. Ghiloufi, L. Khezami, L. El Mir, Nanoporous activated carbon for fast uptake of heavy metals from aqueous solution, Desal. Wat. Treat., 55 (2014) 935–944.
  34. R. Rostamian, M. Najafi, A.A. Rafati, Synthesis and characterization of thiol-functionalized silica nano hollow sphere as a novel adsorbent for removal of poisonous heavy metal ions from water: kinetics, isotherms and error analysis, Chem. Eng. J., 171 (2011) 1004–1011.
  35. M.E. Mahmoud, H.M. Albishri, Nano-silica sorbents immobilized hydrophobic ionic liquids for enhanced adsorptive extraction of cadmium from acidic aqueous solutions, Desal. Wat. Treat., 49 (2012) 348–358.
  36. M. Ghaedi, E. Sharifpour, Chemically modified nano silica gel with 2-((3silylpropylimino) methyl)-2-hydroxy-1-naphthol (SPIMHN) as good and efficient adsorbent for solid phase extraction, Desal. Wat. Treat., 41 (2012) 315–324.
  37. M. Najafi, Y. Yousefi, A.A. Rafati, Synthesis, characterization and adsorption studies of several heavy metal ions on aminofunctionalized silica nano hollow sphere and silica gel, Sep. Purif. Technol., 85 (2012) 193–205.
  38. M.E. Mahmoud, M.S. Abdelwahab, E.M. Fathallah, Design of novel nano-sorbents based on nano-magnetic iron oxide–bound-nano-silicon oxide–immobilized-triethylenetetramine for implementation in water treatment of heavy metals, Chem. Eng. J., 223 (2013) 318–327.
  39. Z. Shiri-Yekta, M.R. Yaftian, A.R. Nilchi, Silica nanoparticles modified with a Schiff base ligand: an efficient adsorbent for Th(IV), U(VI) and Eu(III) ions, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 30 (2013) 1644–1651.
  40. M.K. Moftakhar, M.R. Yaftian, M. Ghorbanloo, Adsorption efficiency, thermodynamics and kinetics of Schiff base-modified nanoparticles for removal of heavy metals, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 13 (2016) 1707–1722.
  41. A. Shokrolahi, M. Ghaedi, H. Ghaedi, Potentiometric and spectrophotometric studies of copper(II) complexes of some ligands in aqueous and nonaqueous solution, J. Chin. Chem. Soc., 54 (2007) 933–940.
  42. S.A.M. Fathi, S. Rostamkhani, M.R. Yaftian, Determination of trace amounts of copper in water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration on octadecylbonded silica membranes modified by a di-shiff base ligand, J. Anal. Chem., 65 (2010) 614–619.
  43. M. Shamsipur, A.R. Ghiasvand, H. Sharghi, H. Naeimi, Solid phase extraction of ultra trace copper(II) using octadecyl silica membrane disks modified by a naphthol-derivative Schiff’s base, Anal. Chim. Acta, 408 (2000) 271–277.
  44. S. Oshima, N. Hirayama, K. Kubono, H. Kokusen, T. Honjo, Ionpair extraction behavior of divalent metal cations using neutral di-Schiff base ligands derived from 1,2-cyclohexanediamine and o-phenylenediamine, Talanta, 59 (2003) 867–874.
  45. F. Shemirani, M.R. Jamali, R.R. Kozani, M. Salavati-Niasari, Cloud point extraction and preconcentration for the determination of Cu and Ni in natural water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, Sep. Sci. Technol., 41 (2006) 3065–3077.
  46. S.A.M. Fathi, M.R. Yaftian, Cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination of trace amounts of copper(II) ions in water samples, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 334 (2009) 167–170.
  47. S.A.M. Fathi, M. Parinejad, M.R. Yaftian, Multidentate nitrogen/ oxygen donor ionophores; their use as selective extracting and mobile-carrier agents for copper(II) ions, Sep. Purif. Technol., 64 (2008) 1–7.
  48. M.P. Neu, Coordination Chemistry of Two Heavy Metals: I. Ligand Preferences in Lead(II) Complexation, Toward the Development of Therapeutic Agents for Lead Poisoning. II. Plutonium Solubility and Speciation Relevant to the Environment, PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Department of Chemistry, 1993.
  49. J.A. Dean, Analytical Chemistry Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995.
  50. M. Ghorbanloo, M. Jaworska, P. Paluch, G.D. Li, L.J. Zhou, Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity for thioanisole oxidation of homogeneous and heterogeneous binuclear manganese(II) complexes with amino acid-based ligands, Transition Met. Chem., 38 (2013) 511–521.
  51. R.P. Suresh Jeyakumar, V. Chandrasekaran, Adsorption of lead(II) ions by activated carbons prepared from marine green algae: equilibrium and kinetics studies, Int. J. Ind. Chem., 5 (2014) 2–10.
  52. P. Sharma, M. Sharma, R. Tomar, Na-HEU zeolite synthesis for the removal of Th(IV) and Eu(III) from aqueous waste, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 44 (2013) 480–488.
  53. H.K. Boparai, M. Joseph, D.M. O’Carroll, Kinetics and thermodynamics of cadmium ion removal by adsorption onto nanozerovalent iron particles, J. Hazard. Mater., 186 (2011) 458–465.
  54. A. Kara, A. Tuncel, Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics of the adsorption of lead(II) ions onto porous mono-sized microspheres possessing imidazole functional groups, Adsorpt. Sci. Technol., 29 (2011) 259–275.
  55. X. Zhang, C. Jiao, J. Wang, Q. Liu, R. Li, P. Yang, M. Zhang, Removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions by magnetic Schiff base: kinetic and thermodynamic investigation, Chem. Eng. J., 198–199 (2012) 412–419.
  56. Y. Jiang, H. Pang, B. Liao, Removal of copper(II) ions from aqueous solution by modified bagasse, J. Hazard. Mater., 164 (2009) 1–9.
  57. Z. Ghasemi, A. Seif, T.S. Ahmadi, B. Zargar, F. Rashidi, G.M. Rouzbahani, Thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the adsorption of Hg(II) by nano-TiO2 from aqueous solution, Adv. Powder Technol., 23 (2012) 148–156.
  58. S. Lin, R. Juang, Heavy metal removal from water by sorption using surfactant modified montmorillonite, J. Hazard. Mater., 92 (2002) 315–326.
  59. A. Ozcan, E.M. Oncu, A.S. Ozcan, Kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of adsorption of Acid Blue 193 from aqueous solutions onto natural sepiolite, Colloids Surf., A, 277 (2006) 90–97.
  60. M. Nameni, M.R. Alavi Moghadam, M. Arami, Adsorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by wheat bran, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 5 (2008) 161–168.
  61. M. Mohapatra, S. Khatun, S. Andad, Adsorption behavior of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on NALCO plant sand, Indian J. Chem. Technol., 16 (2009) 291–300.
  62. Y.S. Ho, Isotherm for the sorption of lead onto pead: comparison of linear and non-linear methods, Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 15 (2006) 81–86.
  63. A.K. Bhattacharya, T.K. Naiya, S.N. Mondal, S.K. Das, Adsorption, kinetics and equilibrium studies on removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using different low-cost sorbents, Chem. Eng. J., 137 (2008) 529–541.
  64. L.M. Zhou, J.Y. Jin, Z.R. Liu, X.Z. Liang, C. Shang, Adsorption of acid dyes from aqueous solutions by the ethylenediaminemodified magnetic chitosan nanoparticles, J. Hazard. Mater., 185 (2011) 1045–1052.
  65. J.X. Yu, R.A. Chi, Y.F. Zhang, Z.G. Xu, C.Q. Xiao, J. Guo, A situ co-precipitation method to prepare magnetic PMDA modified sugarcane bagasse and its application for competitive adsorption of methylene blue and basic magenta, Bioresour. Technol., 110 (2012) 160–166.
  66. Y.T. Zhou, B.W. Christopher, H.L. Nie, Adsorption mechanism of Cu2+ from aqueous solution by chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles modified with α-ketoglutaric acid, Colloids Surf., B, 74 (2009) 244–252.
  67. Y. Cui, X. Chang, Y. Zhai, X. Zhu, H. Zheng, N. Lian, ICP-AES determination of trace elements after preconcentrated with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde-modified nanometer SiO2 from sample solution, Microchem. J., 83 (2006) 35–41.
  68. F. Marahel, M. Ghaedi, A. Shokrollahi, M. Montazerzohori, S. Davoodi, Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated poly (vinyl) chloride: an alternative support for solid phase extraction of some transition and heavy metals, Chemosphere, 74 (2009) 583–589.
  69. L. Zhang, C. Yu, W. Zhao, Z. Hua, H. Chen, L. Li, J. Shi, Preparation of multi-amine-grafted mesoporous silicas and their application to heavy metal ions adsorption, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 353 (2007) 4055–4061.
  70. R. Liu, P. Liang, Determination of trace lead in water samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration with nanometer titanium dioxide immobilized on silica gel, J. Hazard. Mater., 152 (2008) 166–171.
  71. P.K. Tewari, K. Singh Ajai, Preconcentration of lead with amberlite XAD-2 and amberlite XAD-7 based chelating resins for its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, Talanta, 56 (2002) 735–744.
  72. M. Ghaedi, F. Ahmadi, A. Shokrollahi, Simultaneous preconcentration and determination of copper, nickel, cobalt and lead ions content by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, J. Hazard. Mater., 142 (2007) 272–278.
  73. G. Vázquez, M. Calvo, M.S. Freire, J. González-Alvarez, G. Antorrena, Chestnut shell as heavy metal adsorbent: optimization study of lead, copper and zinc cations removal, J. Hazard. Mater., 172 (2009) 1402–1414.